An Assessment of Quality Assurance on Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools in Kenya

An Assessment of Quality Assurance on Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools in Kenya

 1Maiyo J, 2Ngina J, and 3Wetiba J

3.1 Abstract

The core function of the directorate of Quality Assurance and Standards is ensuring Quality education. Despite the government’s effort in strengthening the department, it is still wanting. The main objective of the study was to carry out an assessment of quality assurance on academic performance in public primary schools in Lugari Sub-county. The study was based on the Structural Functionalist Theory. The research adopted a descriptive research design whereby mixed research methodology was utilized in collecting both qualitative and quantitative data. The study targeted 5 education officials, 45 head teachers, 45 deputy head teachers and 350 teachers all making a target population of 445 people. Stratified sampling technique was used to sample 14 head teachers,14 deputy head teachers , 105  teachers and   purposive sampling technique was used to select education officials all making a sample size of 135 people. Interview schedules were used to collect data from education officials. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Data collected was analyzed using both inferential and descriptive statistics. The study found that QASOs were not visiting schools physically and regularly. It was also found that the QASOs did not have enough time with the teachers to discuss the strengths and weaknesses observed during their visits to schools. The study found that QASOs did not organize seminars and workshops for teachers on curriculum implementation and at the same time they concentrated on administrative issues whenever they visited schools. The study recommended that QASOs should organize regular seminars and workshops to update teachers on the current teaching methods. There was need to improve the pupils’ learning environment by providing enough sanitation facilities, relevant textbooks, enough and secure classrooms.

Key words: Quality Assurance, Assessment, Academic Performance

3.2 Introduction

Education is a tool for national development. Onyeachu (2006) observes that it is through education that cultural heritages are transferred from generation to generation. This being the case, there is need to maintain quality at all levels of our education system starting from primary level. Duff, (2000) defines Quality Assurance as a process through which an education institution guarantees to itself and its stakeholders that its teaching, learning and other services constantly reach a standard of excellence. In England, the earliest form of inspection meant checking the work of the teachers. In many schools in the sub-counties, the person responsible for this task was known as the school inspector. The title is still applied to certain supervisory officers in England and in British Common Wealth countries. The inspection by then was not an attempt to help the teachers improve instruction but was designed to determine whether or not the teachers did their work the way they were supposed to and if they didn’t to replace them with teachers who would do the job better (Etindi, 2000). The topic of quality assurance has become one of the central topics in the context of recent educational reforms, and the concept of quality has become one of the most fashionable concepts in contemporary educational terminology. However, the understanding of quality and the possible ways and means of assuring quality in education varies. One could name different structures and institutions in the system of education which are supposed to assure quality. Educational reforms world-wide, and in post-communist countries in particular, are aimed at providing better quality in education, so the previous structures and institutions are reorganized in order to achieve this aim in the best possible way (Rimantas, 2011).

Quality in education is the degree to which education can be said to be of a high standard, satisfies basic learning needs and enriches the lives of learners and their overall experience of living (UNESCO, 2005). In an effort to achieve the Education For All (EFA) goal, massive human, financial, and physical resources have been invested in the education sector. In this respect, focus is on the client (the pupil), and involves all the stakeholders. During the World Education Forum held in Dakar in 2000, member states committed themselves to improve all aspects of quality in education and at the same time control all the factors that may hinder the provision of quality education. Delegates concluded that quality is at the heart of education and it is one of the key goals in achieving EFA goal. This conclusion was based on evidence that expanded enrolment must be accompanied by enhancement of quality of education thus by assuring  quality in  education and  laying necessary strategies to have factors that hinder quality in education  controlled  if children are to be attracted  to school, retained and to achieve meaningful learning outcomes.

3.3 Statement of the Problem

Directorate of quality assurance and standards is charged with the responsibility of improving standards of education in Kenya (Waweru, 2005). Its role is more of being supervisors for teachers in relation to curriculum implementation. Quality education can only be achieved if the curriculum is effectively implemented. According to Farrant (1980) Quality Assurance provides a link between teachers, administrators and other relevant stakeholders. It also offers In-service training to teachers, educational resources, capacity building to other relevant stakeholders among others. All these are geared towards improving the quality of education which in turn yields better results in terms of academic performance. Lugari Sub-county has officers who are deployed from the DQAS to perform these roles.

However, the academic performance in most of the public primary schools in the sub-county has been poor over the past years. The sub-county has posted poor results in National Examinations (KCPE) in public primary schools for the last four years as out of the 13,583 candidates presented for national exams, only 53 candidates scored above 400 marks, 2317   candidates scored between 300-399 marks and 2551 candidates scoring above the national average mark of 250 marks. Interestingly, 8662 candidates representing 68% of the total number of candidates in the last four years scored below the national average mark of 250 marks (MOEST, 2013). The implication is that majority of pupils in the sub-county cannot be admitted in well-endowed secondary schools. This has raised eyebrows amongst the stakeholders complaining about the performance. Furthermore, the results do not match with the massive financial resources the government through Free Primary Education (FPE) is channeling to our schools for the purchase of instructional/materials and the deployment of trained staff (QASOs and teachers). The question in our minds then is to what extent does quality assurance contribute to academic performance in public primary schools of Lugari Sub-County?  This prompted the researcher to carry out an assessment of quality assurance on academic performance in public primary schools in Lugari Sub-county.

3.4 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to carry out an assessment of quality assurance on academic performance in public primary schools in Lugari Sub-county.

3.5 Justification of the Study

Public primary schools in Lugari Sub-county benefit from the government’s massive resource investment in terms of human and financial resources directed to the education sector with a sole aim of improving the quality in education and more so academic performance. To this effect, qualified and trained teachers have been staffed in schools besides officers from the directorate of quality assurance being deployed in the sub-county to assure the quality of educational services provided in public primary schools. Despite all these efforts by the government, academic performance in public primary schools in the sub-county has been dwindling for the last four years. The implication is that pupils from Lugari Sub-county cannot compete well with the pupils from other sub-counties in terms of Secondary school placement. For instance, out of 13,583 the sub-county has presented for KCPE in the last four years only 53 candidates were able to attain 400 and above marks that enabled them to join the well-endowed national schools. This trend only helps to marginalize pupils from the Sub-county in terms of accessing quality education that will enable them compete favorably with their peers from other Sub-counties in the job market.

3.6 Theoretical Framework

The theoretical basis for this study was derived from the Structural Functionalist Theory by (Talcot Parsons,1975) and improved by (Rice Keith, 2012) which postulates that society is best understood as a complex system with various interdependent parts that work together to increase stability. It takes the view that society consists of parts of which each has its own function and work together to promote the achievement of stability in a society. Talcot (1975) believed that order, stability and cooperation in society are based on value and consensus that is a general agreement by members of a society concerning what is good and worthwhile.

Structural Functionalist Theory view society as coherent, bounded and fundamentally relational construct that functions like organisms with their various social institutions together in an unconscious and automatic fashion towards achieving an overall social equilibrium. Parsons developed the idea of roles into a collective role that complements each other in fulfilling functions for society. These are functional in the sense that they assist society in operating and fulfilling its functional needs so that society runs smoothly. Structural Functionalist Theory looks at a school as a society that is made up of different inter-related parts with specific roles to play. For instance teachers, school facilities and materials, school administration and quality assurance officers: each has a role to play in order to attain the desired educational goal.

To ensure quality performance all the parts of the school system must work together and interact with each other in a social system. Schools like other organizations are always in constant exchange with the larger society (Oso & Onen, 2009). It is the interaction between the various components of a school that will determine the level of teamwork, customer satisfaction, quality improvement, shared vision and academic performance. Therefore, quality assurance personnel, pupils’ learning environment, staff development programmes and school leadership styles need to be addressed with concern to ensure improved academic performance in the Sub-county. The scenario described above, points to the need to carryout out an assessment of quality assurance on academic performance in public primary schools in Lugari Sub-county.

3.7 Conceptual Framework

Figure 2.1 above shows a conceptual model that illustrates an assessment of quality assurance on academic performance in public primary schools. The model was based on the Structural Functionalist Theory by (Talcot, 1975). The selection of the model was based on the belief that harmonious interaction of various parts of the school system, effectively playing their roles in the school system ultimately yields desired academic achievements. The independent variable included: the aspect of quality assurance officers, pupils learning environment, staff development programmes and school leadership styles.

These factors when well managed lead to the desired dependent variable which is improved academic performance. The intervening variables are finance, school culture and social cultural factors which affect an assessment of quality assurance on academic performance in public primary schools. These entire variables are to be looked upon in order to ensure good academic performance.

3.8 Research Methodology

3.8.1 Research Design

A research design is the arrangement of conditions and analysis of   data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. Descriptive design is a method of collecting information by interviewing or administering a questionnaire to a sample of individuals (Orodho, 2009). It can be used when collecting information about people’s attitudes, opinions, habits or any of the variety of social issues (Orodho and Kombo, 2002).

Borg and Gall (1985), noted that descriptive research is intended to produce statistical information about aspects of education that interests policy makers and educators. Survey research designs allow researchers to gather information, summarize, present and interpret for the purpose of clarification (Orodho, 2002). It utilizes both the quantitative and qualitative approaches. The study adapted descriptive survey approach, which attempted to collect data from members of a population in order to determine the current status of that population with respect to one variable (Mugenda at el., 2003). Descriptive research designs make it necessary to acquire a lot of information through description as it is useful in identifying variables. Descriptive research design was appropriate for this study due to the fact that the study aimed at generating and describing findings which facilitated a general understanding and interpretation of an assessment of quality assurance on academic performance in public primary schools in Lugari Sub-county. This study utilized mixed research methodology thus both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used.

3.8.2 Target Population

Orodho (2009) states that target population, also called universe are all members of a real or hypothetical set of people, events or objects to which the researcher wishes to organize the results of the study. The study targeted the Ministry of Education staff at the sub-county and divisional level particularly one DEO, two AEOs and two Quality Assurance officers. Public primary schools were also targeted. The research targeted 45 public primary schools with 45 head teachers, 45 deputy head teachers and 350 teachers and 5 educational offices from the sub-county this was because education officials, head teachers, deputy head teachers and teachers are the people charged with the responsibility of ensuring quality in education in all public schools in the Sub-county.

3.8.3 Sampling Procedure and Sample Size

The researcher adopted the (Kerlinger, 1993) argument that 30% of the target population is able to reflect the results of the target population. The researcher   chose public primary schools representing 30% of the total number of schools in Lugari Sub-county whereby stratified sampling was used to select 14 head teachers, 14 deputy head teachers and 105 teachers. Purposive sampling was used to select two education officials from the Sub –county education office giving a sample size of 135 respondents representing 30% of the target population. Samples were drawn from the target population of public primary schools in the three zones; Lugari North, Lugari South and Lugari Central. The schools were listed down on a piece of paper according to the three zones. Lugari North had 16 schools. The first listed school was not counted, but from school two, the third school was picked totaling to five schools. Lugari Central had 17 schools. School one was picked then after every three schools the fourth one was picked totaling to five schools. Lugari South had 12 schools every third school was picked from school one making a total of four.

                                    Table 1: Sampling procedure and sample size

Central ZoneNorth ZoneSouth ZoneTarget PopulationTotal Sample SizePercentage
Head teachers

Sample size

17

 

(5)

16

 

(5)

12

 

(4)

451430
 

Deputy head teachers

 

Sample size

 

17

 

(5)

 

16

 

(5)

 

12

 

(4)

 

45

 

14

 

30

 

Teachers

 

Sample size

 

131

 

(39)

 

124

 

(37)

 

95

 

(29)

 

350

 

105

 

30

Education officials 

 

 

 

5

 

2

 

30

Total44513530

 

3.8.4 Data Collection Instruments

Reliable data depends on the precision of research instrument to be used. Therefore to have reliable data, suitable instruments necessary to provide high accuracy for generalization was used. This research employed the use of questionnaires and interview schedules to collect information from the respondents.

3.8.5 Data Analysis Techniques

Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics which involved the use of frequency, percentages and mean, Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient to determine the relationship between among variables under study. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically using the detailed responses from the education officials on their views on quality assurance and academic performance. Themes identified by education officials were considered common themes and ultimately coded, accordingly in relation to the variables under study. The findings were presented using tables, graphs and pie charts.

3.9 Ethical Consideration

The researcher sought permission from the relevant authorities before proceeding for research. Before an individual became a respondent, he/she was notified of the aims, methods, and anticipated benefits of the confidential nature of his/her reply. No pressure or inducement of any kind was applied to encourage an individual to become a participant in the research. The identity of individuals from whom information was obtained in the course of the research was kept strictly confidential.

3.10 Findings

Effect of quality assurance officers on academic performance.

3.11 Gender

Data on gender of the respondents was collected whereby out of 134 respondents 80 were male while 54 were female.

 

Figure 3: Gender

From the study, it showed that there was gender disparity in the respondents as summarized in the figure 3 above. The male teachers were 80 (59.7%) and the female being 54 (40.3%).The findings indicated that there were more males than females, which is in line with the majority male employment of teachers in the sub-county.

The researcher collected data on the nature and extent to which quality assurance and standards officers perform their duties.

Table 3: Quality assurance officers and academic performance

Strongly AgreeAgreeNot SureDisagreeStrongly Disagree
Physically visit schools for assessment. 

Count

 

11

 

31

 

16

 

44

 

32

%8.2%23.1%11.9%32.8%23.9%
Teachers benefit a lot from QASOs 

Count

 

18

 

10

 

11

 

39

 

56

%13.4%7.5%8.2%29.1%41.8%
QASOs regularly visit schools for assessment. 

Count

1920134348
%14.2%14.9%9.7%25.4%35.8%
QASOs concentrate on administrative issues. 

Count

3846112811
%28.4%34.3%8.2%20.9%8.2%
QASOs have enough time with teachers when they visit schools. 

Count

2616123050
%19.4%11.9%9.0%22.4%37.3%

 

From table 3 above a small number of respondents 11 (8.2%) strongly agreed that QASOs physically visit schools for assessment, 31 (23.1%) agreed, 44 (32.8%) disagreed and 32 (23.9%) strongly disagreed while 16 (11.9%) of the respondents were not sure whether the QASOs physically visit schools for assessment. This was in disagreement with Olembo and Cameron (1992) assertion that the QASOs have to physically visit schools for assessment. A small number of the respondents 18 (13.4%) strongly agreed and 10 (7.5%) agreed that teachers benefit a lot from the QASOs. Majority of the respondents, 39 (29.1%) disagreed and 56 (41.8%) strongly disagreed while 11 (8.2%) were not sure whether teachers benefit a lot from the QASOs. This was not in line with Farrant (1980) argument that teachers make the fullest use of the QASOs for better performance. A small number of respondents 19 (14.2%) strongly agreed that QASOs regularly visit schools for assessment, 20 (14.9%) agreed and 43 (25.4%) disagreed while 48 (35.8%) strongly disagreed. A non-committal group of 13 (9.7%) of the respondents was not sure whether QASOs regularly visit schools for assessment. The study findings contradicted Kipkoech and Kyalo (2010) argument that the QASOs should regularly visit schools for assessment in order to realize good results. Majority of the respondents 38 (28, 4%) strongly agreed that QASOs concentrate on administrative issues whenever they visit schools for assessment, 46(34.3%) agreed. A small number of the respondents 28 (20.9%) disagreed, 11 (8.2%) strongly disagreed while 11 (8.2%) were not sure whether the QASOs concentrate on administrative issues. The study findings were in line with (Etindi, 2000) observation that most QASOs concentrate on administrative issues at the expense of curriculum and skills of teaching during instruction. A small number of respondents 26 (19.4%) strongly agreed that QASOs usually had enough time with teachers to discuss the strengths and weaknesses observed during the assessment of schools. 16 (11.9%) agreed, 30 (22.4%) disagreed and 50 (37.3%) strongly disagreed while 12 (9%) of the respondents were not sure whether QASOs had enough time with teachers to discuss the strengths and weaknesses observed during the assessment of schools. The study findings contradicted (Wafula, 2010) argument that QASOs are important in helping to improve actual teaching and helpful in the role of preparation and keeping of teaching records. For them to perform their duties effectively, they should create enough time to discuss and share with the teachers the strengths and weaknesses observed during their visits to schools.

From the findings it is clearly indicated that QASOs in Lugari Sub-county do not perform their roles of supervising curriculum implementation, advising teachers on pedagogical issues as well as mounting seminars on curriculum implementation as required. This was confirmed by the response from one education official during the interview who observed that: ‘It is a true fact that the Sub-county is understaffed as it has only one QASO who is expected to attend to quality assurance and standards issues in both public primary and secondary schools in the entire sub-county. A part from this the same officer has to double as a Deputy DEO. Surely with the immense roles attached to QAS, it requires something next to a miracle to have only one officer to carry out all these duties’

This implied that the sub-county is inadequately staffed with officers charged with the responsibility of assuring quality in education. These findings concur with (Rep. of Kenya, 2005) observation that education reforms often fail to achieve desired outcomes due to ineffective and inefficient supervision. The findings implied that schools are left on their own to implement curriculum without checks and balances to ensure quality in teaching. The findings contradicted Wafula (2010) argument that the QASOs are important in helping to improve the actual teaching and helpful in the role of preparation and keeping of teaching records besides sparing some time to share and discuss with the teachers the strengths and weaknesses observed during their visits to schools. Furthermore Chetalam (2010) noted that among other factors that affect academic performance in primary schools in Kenya, supervision had a positive effect on performance .It therefore implied that primary schools in Lugari Sub-county were not well supervised by QASOs which was a cause of poor academic performance in public primary schools in the Sub-county.

3.12 Pupils Learning Environment Effect on Academic Performance

Data was collected on the pupils’ learning environment whereby density of students, percentage use of books, availability of teaching/ learning materials, sanitation and safety in the classrooms were looked into. The findings are presented in the table below.

 

Table 3.1: Pupils’ Learning Environment

Strongly AgreeAgreeNot SureDisagreeStrongly disagree
classrooms exceeding 50 pupils

 

 

 

Count

 

 

74

 

 

42

 

 

3

 

 

11

 

 

4

%55.2%31.3%2.2%8.2%3.0%
books provided by school administration

 

 

Count

 

33

 

39

 

6

 

37

 

19

%24.6%29.1%4.5%27.6%14.2%
learning made simple by improvisation

 

Count

 

286913159
%20.9%51.5%9.7%11.2%6.7%
crowding of pupils during break time while awaiting for the toilet 

Count

 

22

 

49

 

9

 

26

 

28

%16.4%36.6%6.7%19.4%20.9%
presence of shutters in classrooms 

Count

212234345
%15.7%16.4%2.2%32.1%33.6%

From table 3.1 above 74 (55.2%) of respondents strongly agreed that some classrooms exceeded 50 pupils, 42 (31.3%) agreed of the same, 11 (8.2%) strongly disagreed that some classrooms had 50 pupils and above, 4 (3.0%) disagreed while 3 (2.2%) were not sure of the class size. The findings concurred with the MOEST (2005) observation that primary education continues to experience many challenges relating to access and equity.  Key among them is the overstretched facilities due to overcrowded classrooms in schools. The implication is that the classrooms are not enough as compared to the population of pupils in schools. On pupils access to textbooks, 33 (24.6%) of the respondents strongly agreed that all pupils access text books provided by the school administration and 39 (29.1%) agreed. However, 37 (27.6%) of the respondents disagreed and 19 (14.2%) strongly disagreed while 6 (4.5%) were not sure whether pupils accessed text books provided by the school administration. The findings concur with Bullock (2007) study findings that students performed better in schools that had enough text books, toilets, lockable doors and windows.

Majority of the respondents were for the opinion that text books were fairly provided in schools and were in use. Improvisation of teaching and learning materials was well practiced as 28 (20.9%) of the respondents strongly agreed that teachers improvise teaching/learning materials to make learning simple and 69 (51.5%) of the respondents agreed. A small percentage of the respondents, 15 (11.2%) disagreed and 9 (6.7%) strongly disagreed that teachers improvise teaching/ learning materials to make learning simple while13 (9.7%) were not sure. More than half of the respondents supported the availability of locally made teaching /learning aids. The findings were in line with Ayot et al (1992) argument that teaching and learning materials are apparently effective whilst others have the opposite of this since .the improvised materials had no impact on the academic performance. Time is essential as 22 (16.4%) of the respondents strongly agreed that during break time there was a common crowd of waiting pupils for the toilet and 49 (36.6%) agreed. Quite a number of respondents, 26 (19.4%) disagreed and 28 (20.9%) strongly disagreed and 9 (6.7%) were not sure. The findings showed that toilets were not enough giving an implication that pupils wasted a lot of time outside. About the security of the classrooms, .21 (15.7%) of the respondents strongly agreed that most classrooms had shutters for safety of teaching/learning materials and 22 (16.4%) of the respondents agreed. Most of the respondents, 43 (32.1%) disagreed   while 45 (33.6%) strongly disagreed that most classrooms had shutters for safety of teaching/learning materials. A small percentage of the respondents, 3 (2.2%) were not sure. The respondents tend to agree in majority with all the constructs meaning that the school learning environment was found not to be conducive for effective learning.

This was confirmed by a female education official during the interview observed that:‘The issue of sanitation facilities in primary schools is unending problem. In some schools, both boys and girls share toilets. Parents have abdicated their parental responsibilities and are not ready to join hands with the school administration to solve the issue of inadequacy of toilets in schools .The girl child requires secrecy and for that matter they are in problems’

The observation confirmed how pathetic the situation was in some schools. The findings concur with Ayot & Briggs (1992) observation that many schools had toilets that inadequate, dirty and filthy that children don’t like using them. Young girls need privacy in toilets, due to their specific biological needs .Further Ayot &Briggs (1992) argue that pupils tend to attach more importance to safe sanitation facilities than class work. The implication was that schools with clean sanitation were likely to attract more pupils than those with poor sanitation facilities .Interestingly most schools in Lugari Sub-county had poor sanitation facilities an issue that can contribute to high school drop-out rate as well as a high rate of pupil absenteeism which may be  a cause of poor academic performance.

Cumulatively there was a concern among the respondents that pupils’ learning environment had an effect on academic performance in public primary schools in Lugari Sub- county as it was established that learning environment was below par and this explained the poor academic performance in the Sub-county.

The researcher calculated Pearson’s correlation coefficient to determine the relationship between the number of desks and performance as summarized in the table 3.2 below.

Table 3.2: Correlations between the number of desks and performance

PerformanceDesks
PerformancePearson Correlation10.267
Sig. (2-tailed)0.05
N3914
 No. of desksPearson Correlation0.2671
Sig. (2-tailed)0.05.
N1414

The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the relationship between the number of desks and performance as summarized in the table 3.2 above, showed that there appeared to be a positive correlation between desks and performance. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.267. The P value was 0.05 which was equal to 0.05 level of significance hence the number of desks were significantly affecting performance. The findings were in line with MOEST (2005) observation that up to five pupils squeeze unto a desk meant for only two pupils whereby they need to share a single text book irrespective of the sitting position.

The researcher also calculated Pearson’s correlation coefficient between textbooks percentage use per school and academic performance.

Table 3.3: Correlations between text books percentage of use per school and academic performance

PerformanceTextbook Per School
PerformancePearson Correlation10.071
Sig. (2-tailed).0.045
N3914
Textbook % of use per schoolPearson Correlation0.0711
Sig. (2-tailed)0.045

 

N1414

Table 3.3 above shows that there was a positive correlation between text books percentage of use per school and academic performance. The Pearson’s Correlation was 0.071. The P value was 0.045 which was less than 0.05 level of significance hence text books percentage of use per school was  significantly affecting academic performance. The findings concurred with Bullock (2007) findings that students performed better in schools that had enough text books which were well used. This indicated that many schools could be having text books which were locked in cupboard and were not in use so as to enhance their security. Also the penalty for losing books may be driving teachers to keep them in secure places with little logistical strategies for availing them daily for use. Several factors could explain the scenario, there were a number of text books which were poorly distributed per subject in every school. While this problem was noticed in all the schools visited, St. Mary’s Boarding Primary, Macho Muslim Primary and Lumakanda Township Primary had no problem. These schools had lockable cupboards for the storage of the text books. This meant that teachers used the text books quite often without the fear of losing them. Though this was not enough the pupil-text book ratio in the schools mentioned above was relatively favorable than the rest of the other schools visited. The findings from interview revealed that in the three mentioned schools, one text book was shared by three pupils (1:3) while in the other schools, one text book was found to be shared by five pupils (1:5). Moreover, the pupils in both categories were not allowed to carry home the text books. The  idea of pupils deprived of text books promote less reading skills and are obliged to content themselves with rote learning, recitation and copying from black boards. This describes most of the public primary schools in Lugari Sub-county.

The researcher calculated a Pearson correlation between text books percentage of use per class and academic performance.

Table 3.4: Correlations between text books percentage of use per class and academic performance

PerformanceTextbook Per Class
PerformancePearson Correlation10.82
Sig. (2-tailed).0.021
N3914
Textbook % of use per classPearson Correlation0.821
Sig. (2-tailed)0.021.
N1414

The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the relationship between textbook percentage of use per class and academic performance as summarized in table3.4 above. The findings showed that there was a positive correlation between textbook percentage of use per class and academic performance hence textbooks were significantly affecting academic performance in public primary schools in Lugari Sub-county.

The researcher also calculated a Pearson’s correlation coefficient between students’ density and academic performance.

Table 3.5: Correlations between pupils’ density and academic performance

PerformancePopulation of Pupils
PerformancePearson Correlation1-0.071
Sig. (2-tailed).0.045
N3914
Density  of pupilsPearson Correlation-.0711
Sig. (2-tailed)0.045.
N1414

Table 3.5 above had a negative correlation between the density of pupils and academic performance. It was reflected by Pearson’s correlation of r= -0.071. The P value is 0.045 which is less than 0.05 level of significance hence population of pupils was significantly affecting performance. Basic education, especially primary education continues to experience many challenges relating to access and equity such as overcrowded classes. The findings revealed that there was high pupil-teacher ratio whereby most of the classes had more than 50 pupils per class which in turn distracted the learners from achieving their goals (MOEST, 2003). This showed that high student density was a problem in achieving the desired goal.

3.13 Conclusion

The study concluded that QASOs do not physically and regularly visit schools and at the same time do not offer assistance in terms of advice to teachers on pedagogy. Further, the study concluded that QASOs had no time and in cases where they visited schools, they concentrated on administrative issues particularly in the head teachers’ offices. Therefore concluded that the QASOs were not carrying out their duties of offering support services in terms of curriculum implementation.

The study concluded that pupils’ learning environment was not conducive for effective learning as the student density in classrooms was high, inadequate sanitation facilities, insecure classrooms and use of irrelevant textbooks.

3.14 Recommendations

The study recommended that QASOs to physically and regularly visit schools to supervise and monitor curriculum implementation and delivery. In addition the QASOs should have enough time to share their findings with the teachers during their visits to schools for standard assessments and not concentrate on administrative issues.

The study also recommended that pupils’ learning environment should be improved in terms of providing adequate sanitation facilities, safety of classrooms, relevant textbooks and enough classrooms so as to ease cases of congestion in classrooms for effective learning.

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1Maiyo J, 2Ngina J, 3Wetiba J

Corresponding Author:  

1Department of Educational Planning and Management,

Kibabii University

P.O. Box 1699-50200 Bungoma – Kenya  

Email: maiyojulius@yahooo.com

 

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