Omega Kennedy Amadi, Julius K. Maiyo & Jotham Wasike


The Kenyan government spends part of Capitation Grant (CG): 54% of the tuition amount for purchase of textbooks in Public Secondary Schools in order to attain ratio of one textbook per student. From 2009 up to 2017 Public Secondary Schools had faced challenges in implementing the above policy. The purpose of the study was to look at CG and textbook student ratio in Public Secondary Schools in Bungoma South Sub-County. The objective of the study was to establish the relationship between CG and textbook student ratio in Public Secondary Schools in Bungoma South Sub-County. The study was guided by Human Capital Theory (HCT). The study used descriptive survey design to carry out the study with both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The target population was 53 Public Secondary Schools comprising of 637 respondents. The sample size was 379 respondents comprising of one Sub County Director of Education (SCDE), 27 Principals, 159 HODs, 27 Accounts Clerks’ 27 Librarians, and 138 Students (Class Secretaries). Yamane (1967) formula was used to get the sample size for the 159 HODs and 138 Students/Class Representatives. Random sampling was used to recruit 159 HODs and 138 Students (Class Representatives) while purposive sampling was used to recruit one SCDE, 27 Principals, 27 Accounts Clerks and 27 Librarians. The study used questionnaires and document analysis. Split-half reliability and coefficient alpha were used to ascertain reliability of the instrument. Validity of the instruments was conducted in 4 public secondary schools through piloting and any wanting instrument component was adjusted accordingly. The quantitative data collected was processed and analysed using both descriptive; mean standard deviations and inferential statistics; ANOVA, tukey test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The study established that CG was not adequately utilized to attain the desired 1: 1 textbook student ratio due to divers’ challenges. This may in the long run escalate through the 100 transition rate policy, Findings of this study indicate that insignificant amount of CG funds was used towards textbooks over the years. The study showed a significant strong negative relationship between Capitation Grant and textbook student ratio at (r = -0.760, p-value = 0.000 <0.05). The study recommends that, the Ministry of Education (MOE) and school managers should come up with a robust CG policy for proper utilization of funds meant to purchase textbooks through enhancing monitoring systems for prudent management of the funds to avoid future high textbook student ratio and maintain the recommended ratio of one textbook per student (1:1).

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